ADJ ASST. PROF VYAS PRASAD

Consultant Otolaryngologist (ENT) Head and Neck Surgeon 

M BCh BAO BA (Dublin), MSc DIC (London), DLO (England), MRCS (Edin), FRCS (ORL-HNS)(Edin), FICS

Services Offered

Otolaryngologists are physicians trained in the medical and surgical management and treatment of patients with diseases and disorders of the ear, nose, throat (ENT), and related structures of the head and neck. They are commonly referred to as ENT physicians. Their special skills include diagnosing and managing diseases of the sinuses, larynx (voice box), oral cavity, and upper pharynx (mouth and throat), as well as structures of the neck and face. Otolaryngologists diagnose, treat, and manage speciality-specific disorders as well as many primary care problems in both children and adults.

WHAT DO OTOLARYNGOLOGISTS TREAT?

The Ears – for both medical and surgical treatment of hearing, ear infections, balance disorders, ear noise (tinnitus), nerve pain, and facial and cranial nerve disorders.

The Nose – Sinusitis have been a common condition nowadays in our present society. Care of the nasal cavity and sinuses is one of the primary skills of otolaryngologists. Management of the nasal area includes allergies and sense of smell. Breathing through, and the appearance of, the nose are also part of otolaryngologists’ expertise.

The Throat – Communicating (speech and singing) and eating a meal all involve this vital area. Also specific to otolaryngologists is expertise in managing diseases of the larynx (voice box) and the upper aero-digestive tract or esophagus, including voice and swallowing disorders.

The Head and Neck – This center of the body includes the important nerves that control sight, smell, hearing, and the face. In the head and neck area, our otolaryngologist is trained to treat infectious diseases, both benign and malignant (cancerous) tumors, facial trauma, and deformities of the face. They perform both cosmetic plastic and reconstructive surgery.

ENT Services

  1. General Ear, Nose and Throat Services
    – Audiology (Middle & Inner Ear Tests)
    – Loss of hearing and balance
    – Disorders of paranasal sinuses
    – Headache with paranasal sinus involvement
    – Nasal Infection
    – Nasal Obstruction and deviated septum
    – Nosebleeds (Epistaxis)
    – Nasal Polyps
    – Voice and other throat problems (Hoarseness, choking, swallowing difficulties)
    – ENT related operations
  2. Paediatric ENT
    – Childhood Ear, Nose and Throat disorders
  3. Head and Neck Screening
    – Head and Neck cancer, particularly nasopharyngeal cancer
  4. Allergy Testing
    – Food Allergy Testing & Aeroallergen
  5. Sleep Study
    – Snoring and Sleep apnoea
  6. Industrial Screening
    – ENT assessment for licensing of Divers, Pilots and Laser Operations

Conditions We Treat

  • Head and Neck Cancer
  • Hearing Loss
  • Tinnitus
  • Rhinosinusitis
  • Sleep-disordered breathing and snoring
  • Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA)
  • Swallowing Difficulties
  • Voice Examination
  • Voice Disorders – Acute and Chronic Laryngitis
  • Voice Disorders – Muscle Tension Dysphonia
  • Voice Disorders – Vocal Fold Paralysis
  • Voice Disorders – Vocal Nodules, Polyps, Cysts and Tumours

Diseases of the ear, including trauma (injury), Cancer, and nerve pathway disorder, which affect hearing and balance.

Examples: ear infection; swimmer’s ear; hearing loss; ear, face or neck pain; dizziness, ringing in the ears (tinnitus).

The sinuses are a connected system of hollow cavities in the skull. The largest sinus cavities are about an inch across. Others are much smaller.

  • Your cheekbones hold your maxillary sinuses (the largest).
  • The low-center of your forehead is where your frontal sinuses are located.
  • Between your eyes are your ethmoid sinuses.
  • In bones behind your nose are your sphenoid sinuses.

They’re lined with soft, pink tissue called mucosa. Normally, the sinuses are empty except for a thin layer of mucus.

The inside of the nose has ridges called turbinates. Normally these structures help humidify and filter air. A thin wall, called the septum, divides the nose. Most of the sinuses drain into the nose through a small channel or drainage pathway that doctors call the “middle meatus.”

Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways that makes breathing difficult. With asthma, there is inflammation of the air passages that results in a temporary narrowing of the airways that carry oxygen to the lungs. This results in asthma symptoms, including coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. If it is severe, asthma can result in decreased activity and inability to talk. Some people refer to asthma as “bronchial asthma.”

Even though there are seemingly miraculous treatments for asthma symptoms, asthma is still a serious — even dangerous — disease that affects about 25 million Americans and causes nearly 2 million emergency room visits every year. With proper asthma treatment, you can live well with this condition. Inadequate treatment of the disease limits the ability to exercise and be active. Poorly controlled asthma can lead to multiple visits to the emergency room and even hospital admission, which can affect your performance at home and work.

There are three major features of asthma:

  • Airway obstruction
  • Inflammation
  • Airway irritability

Asthma Causes and Triggers

  • Infections such as sinusitis, colds, and flu
  • Allergens such as pollens, mold spores, pet dander, and dust mites
  • Irritants such as strong odors from perfumes or cleaning solutions, and air pollution
  • Tobacco smoke
  • Exercise (known as exercise-induced asthma)
  • Weather; changes in temperature and/or humidity, cold air
  • Strong emotions such as anxiety, laughter or crying, stress
  • Medications, such as aspirin-sensitive asthma

People develop voice problems for many reasons. Doctors who specialize in ear, nose and throat disorders and speech-language pathologists are involved in diagnosing and treating voice disorders.

Treatment depends on what’s causing your voice disorder but may include voice therapy, medication, injections or surgery.

Causes

Your voice box (larynx) is made of cartilage, muscle and mucous membranes located at the top of your windpipe (trachea) and the base of your tongue. Sound is created when your vocal cords vibrate.

This vibration comes from air moving through the larynx, bringing your vocal cords closer together. Your vocal cords also help close your voice box when you swallow, preventing you from inhaling food or liquid.

If your vocal cords become inflamed, develop growths or become paralyzed, they can’t work properly, and you may develop a voice disorder.

Some common voice disorders include:

  • Laryngitis
  • Neurological voice disorders (spasmodic dysphonia, pronounced spaz-MOD-ik dis-FOE-nee-uh)
  • Polyps, nodules or cysts on the vocal cords (noncancerous lesions)
  • Precancerous and cancerous lesions
  • Vocal cord paralysis or weakness
  • White patches (leukoplakia, pronounced loo-koh-PLAY-key-uh)

Diseases in children with special ENT problems including birth defects in the head and neck and development delays

Examples: ear infection (otitis media), Tonsil and adenoid infection, airway problems, Down’s syndrome, asthma and allergy/sinus disease.

The most common lumps or swellings are enlarged lymph nodes. These can be caused by bacterial or viral infections, cancer (malignancy), or other rare causes. Swollen salivary glands under the jaw may be caused by infection or cancer. Lumps in the muscles of the neck are caused by injury or torticollis.

There are many causes of lumps in the neck. The most common lumps or swellings are enlarged lymph nodes. These can be caused by bacterial or viral infections, cancer (malignancy), or other rare causes.

Swollen salivary glands under the jaw may be caused by infection or cancer. Lumps in the muscles of the neck are caused by injury or torticollis. These lumps are often at the front of the neck. Lumps in the skin or just below the skin are often caused by cysts, such as sebaceous cysts.

The thyroid gland may also produce swelling or one or more lumps. This can be due to thyroid disease or cancer. Most cancers of the thyroid gland grow very slowly. They are often cured with surgery, even if they have been present for several years.

All neck lumps in children and adults should be checked right away by a health care provider. In children, most neck lumps are caused by infections that can be treated. Treatment should start quickly to prevent complications or the spread of infection.

As adults age, the likelihood of the lump being a cancer increases. This is particularly true for people who smoke or drink a lot of alcohol. Most lumps in adults are not cancers.

Causes

Lumps in the neck from swollen lymph nodes may be caused by:

  • Bacterial or viral infection
  • Cancer
  • Thyroid disease
  • Allergic reaction

Lumps in the neck due to enlarged salivary glands may be caused by:

  • Infection
  • Mumps
  • Salivary gland tumor
  • Stone in salivary duct

One Stop Ear, Nose & Throat Evaluation

  • Nasal Endoscopy (examine nasal passage throat & voice box)
  • Otoscopy (examine outer ear  canal & ear drum)
  • Hearing Test (audiogram)
  • Specialist Consultation

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** Call us at 6931 8000 to find out more about our ENT treatment